No state shall without the consent of Congress lay
any imposts or duties on imports or
nor with such consent, but to the use of
the treasury of the United States. except
what may be absolutely necessary for executing its
inspection laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and
Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall
be for the use of the Treasury of the United States;
and all such Laws shall be subject to the revision and
controul of Congress Provided that no state shall
be restrained from imposing the usual duties on produce
exported from such State for the sole purpose of
defraying the charges of inspecting packing, storing,
and indemnifying the losses of such produce which in the
Custody of public officers, but all such regulations
shall in case of abuse be subject to the revision and
controul of Congress. No state shall without the
consent of Congress, lay any duty of Tonnage,
keep troops, or Ships of War in time of peace,
nor enter into any agreement or compact with
another state, nor with any foreign power.
Nor engage in any war unless,
it shall be actually invaded by
enemies or the danger of invasion be
so be such imminent as not to
danger as will not admit of delay until
the Congress can be consulted.
Sect. 1. The executive power shall be
vested in a president of the United States of America.
He shall hold his office during the term of four years,
and together with the vice-president, chosen for the
same term, be elected
in the following
manner as follows.
Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of senators and representatives to which the state may be entitled in Congress: but no senator or representative
be appointed an elector, nor
any person holding an office of trust or
profit under the United States, shall be appointed
The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the
of the United States directed to the president
of the senate. The president of the senate shall in the
presence of the senate and house of representatives
open all the certificates, and the votes shall be then
counted. The person having the greatest number of votes
shall be the president, if such number be a majority of
the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be
more than one who have such majority, and have an equal
number of cotes, then the house of representatives
shall immediately chuse by ballot one of them for
president; and if no person have a majority, then from
the five highest on the list the said house shall in
like manner choose the president. But in choosing the
president, the votes shall be taken by states and
not per capita, the representation from each
state having one vote. A quorum for this purpose shall
consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the
states, and a majority of all the states shall be
necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice
of president by the representatives, the
person having the greatest number of votes of the
electors shall be the vice president. But if there
should remain two of more who have equal votes, the
senate shall choose from them by ballot the vice-
The Congress may determine the time of chusing the electors, and
the time in the day on
which they shall give their votes; but the
election which day shall be
on the same day throughout the
No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall be eligible to the office of president; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident of the United States.
In case of the removal of the president from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the vice-president, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability, both of the president and vice-president, declaring what officer shall then act as president, and such officer shall accordingly, until the disability be removed, or
the period for
chusing another president arrive
shall be elected.
The president shall, at state times, receive
fixed compensation for his services for his
services a compensation, which shall neither be
increased nor diminished during the period for which he
shall have been elected and he shall not receive
within that period any other emolument from the United
States or either of them.
Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation:
I----, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of president of the United States, and will to the best of my
power ability, preserve, protect and
defend the constitution of the United States."
Sect. 2. The president shall be commander in chief of the army and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices,
when called into the actual service of
the United States, and he shall have power to
grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the
United States, except in the cases of impeachment.
He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the supreme court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law. But the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the heads of departments.
The president shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session.
Sect. 3. He shall from time to time give the congress information of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States
Sect. 4. The president, vice-president and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
Sect. 1. The judicial power of the United
both in law and equity, shall be
vested in one supreme court, and in such inferior
courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and
establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior
courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior,
and shall, at stated times, receive for their services,
a compensation, which shall not be diminished during
their continuance in office.
Sect. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases
both in law and equity, arising
under this constitution, the laws of the United States,
and treaties made, or which shall be made under