their authority. To all cases affecting ambassadors,
other public minister and consuls. To all cases of
admiralty and maritime jurisdiction. To controversies
to which the United States shall be a party. To
controversies between two of more States; between a
state and citizens of another state; between citizens
of different states; between citizens of the same state
claiming lands under grants of different States, and
between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign
States, citizens or subjects
In cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.
The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.
Sect. 3. Treason against the Unites States, shall consist of only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.
The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood,
nor forfeiture, except
during the life of the person attained.
Sect. 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.
Sect. 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states.
A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state, shall on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled be delivered up,
and to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.
legally held to service or labour in one state under the Laws thereof escaping into another, shall in consequence of Laws or regulations subsisting therein be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labour may be due.
Sect. 3. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this union; but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned as well as of the Congress.
The Congress shall have the power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States, or of any particular state.
Sect. 4. The United States shall guaranteed to every state in this union a Republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature or of the executive when the Legislature cannot be convened against domestic violence.
The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary,
or on the application of two thirds of the legislatures of the several states; shall propose amendments to this constitution or, on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several states, shall call a Convention for
proposing Amendments which in another case shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part thereof of this Constitution, when the same shall have been ratified by three fourths at least of the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one of the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress;
Provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to the Year 1808 shall in any manner affect the first and fourth
section of articles clauses in
the 9th sec. of the first article and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.
All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution as under the
This constitution and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution to the contrary notwithstanding.
The senators and representatives beforementioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.
The ratification of the conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between the States so ratifying the same.