On April 12, 1861, the first salvos of the American Civil War were fired with the bombardment of the U.S. garrison at Fort Sumter, located in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. It stood as one of the last Federal outposts in the region. Three months earlier On January 28, 1861, George T. Perry submitted this map for copyright. The map carries the following description of the newly completed fort: “Fort Sumter is built in the water, one thousand yards from the land . . . It is just finished and is one of the strongest works in the world; mounted with thirty-two-pound cannon and one hundred rounds of ammunition per gun, . . . two men at one of these could defend it against five hundred.” Alma Pelot made the first photograph of the Confederate flag flying over the fort.