This patriotic engraving was created just before the contentious election of 1800, in which Thomas Jefferson defeated John Adams. The sixteen states then in the union surround President Adams. Below each state's seal are its population and number of senators and representatives.
Over the top is the defiant motto, "Millions for our Defense Not a Cent for Tribute," a slogan that became popular during the late 1790s when the U.S. expected tensions with its Revolutionary War ally France. Americans were angered by French demands for tribute and France's seizures of U.S. merchant ships.