In the 1980s, Herblock perceived the threat of the nuclear programs pursued by Middle Eastern and North African leaders. Muammar Qaddafi of Libya feared Israel, his archenemy, would obliterate him. Saddam Hussein led Iraq into the First Gulf War against Iran (1980 –1988). Ruhollah Khomeini of Iran reacted to Iraq’s use of chemical weapons. During the height of the First Gulf War, the United States accused Hafez Assad of Syria of having a nuclear weapons program.