In 1965, as President Lyndon Johnson (1908–1973) escalated the war in Vietnam with bombing raids against North Vietnam and the introduction of ground forces, the anti-war movement coalesced. Drawing on tactics of the civil rights movement, folksinger Barbara Dane (b. 1927) and Sing Out! magazine editor Irwin Silber (1925–2010) organized a “Sing-In for Peace” at Carnegie Hall. To support their cause, the group took out an ad that quoted the late President Kennedy (1917–1963) on the civic need for unencumbered art.