Ida B. Wells-Barnett (1862–1931)—fiery journalist, women’s rights activist, and civil rights militant—is best known for her anti-lynching crusade. She mobilized public opinion against lynching through her newspaper editorials, pamphlets, clubs, and lecture tours in the northern United States and Great Britain. She also served as secretary of the Afro-American Council, directing its anti-lynching bureau. Her activities laid the groundwork for the NAACP’s anti-lynching campaign. A staunch critic of Booker T. Washington, Wells-Barnett helped organize the NAACP, but she was skeptical of the NAACP’s white leadership and moderate stance and became inactive after 1912. She continued to fight for social justice independently, focusing on women’s suffrage and civic reforms.