During World War II the NAACP renewed efforts to end discrimination in the military. At the war’s onset, only the Army accepted black draftees. Through NAACP intervention, President Roosevelt established black organizations in every major branch of the armed services. He also appointed William Hastie as civilian aide to the Secretary of War and Colonel Campbell C. Johnson as executive assistant to the Director of Selective Service. The Air Force began training black pilots in 1941 at a segregated base at Tuskegee Institute. In 1942 the Navy and Marines agreed to enlist blacks for general service, but most were assigned to menial tasks or construction work. William Hastie resigned in 1943 to protest the continuing discrimination. In 1944 all-white army divisions were integrated as black troops answered the call to volunteer for the Battle of the Bulge. They later returned to segregated non-combat units.